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This book is the second collection of systematic case studies describing national environmental policies in 17 countries in terms of capacity building (see AppenÂ dix). The OECD defines environmental capacity building as "a society's ability to identify and solve environmental problems. " While various institutions, including UNEP, FAO, World Bank and OECD, have hitherto used the terms environmental capacity and capacity building almost exclusively with reference to developing countries, we have extended the concepts to industrialized countries, as well. The first collection, edited by Martin Janicke, Helge Joergens (both Free University Berlin) and Helmut Weidner (Social Science Research Center Berlin), was pubÂ lished in 1997 under the title "National Environmental Policies - A Comparative Study of Capacity-Building" (Berlin, etc. : Springer Verlag). It included 13 studies of countries. As in the first volume, chapter I presents the conceptual framework underlying the national case studies. It is a slightly shorter version of the corresponding chapÂ ter in volume I. The design of all case studies in the two volumes is largely conÂ gruent with this conceptual framework. Although the various sections of the studÂ ies do not always have identical titles and subtitles, the central elements of the capacity-building approach have been applied in all cases.
This book describes the concept and design of the capacitively-coupled chopper technique, which can be used in precision analog amplifiers. Readers will learn to design power-efficient amplifiers employing this technique, which can be powered by regular low supply voltage such as 2V and possibly having a +/-100V input common-mode voltage input. The authors provide both basic design concepts and detailed design examples, which cover the area of both operational and instrumentation amplifiers for multiple applications, particularly in power management and biomedical circuit designs.